CLEVER BITES FOR CLEVER COOKIES
Over the last five years, a significant amount of research has focused on the benefits of pulse flours. This has yielded important new information on the qualities of pulses, and their functionality and applications in food and pet food.
Best Cooking Pulses goal is to provide 'Clever Cookies' with helpful links to research papers, posters, theses, and other sources of literature, both published and unpublished.
Quality of pulses:
- Gluten-free - Allowable levels and nutritional comparison of typical gluten-free flours and wheat flours
- Minimum risk of aflatoxins/vomitoxin in pulses
- Nutrient dense
- Protein content and quality
- Total Dietary Fibre (TDF) definitions and methods of testing
Functionality and applications:
- Research summary on processing, functionality and applications
- Particle size
- Milling method
- Flavour issues
- Food applications
- Pet food application information
Qualities of pulses:
Gluten-free - Allowable levels – To be labeled gluten-free, each lot of pulse flour needs to be tested for gluten. A maximum <20ppm is the allowable limit in a food according to the standard as set by Codex in 2008 (Codex Stan 118-1981).
Based on scientific evidence, Health Canada considers that gluten-free foods, prepared under good manufacturing practices and containing levels of gluten not exceeding 20ppm, as a result of cross-contamination, meet the health and safety intent of B.24.018 when a gluten-free claim is made.
Gluten-free - Nutritional comparison of typical gluten-free flours and wheat flours – This nutritional comparison of 1 cup of typical gluten-free flours, including pulse flours, and wheat flours is based on a chart excerpted from Gluten-Free Diet: A Comprehensive Resource Guide by Shelley Case, RD.
Click here to review a comparison of typical gluten-free flours, including pulse flours, and wheat flours
Minimum risk of aflatoxins/vomitoxin in peas - Pulses form in pods, and so are protected from field fungi which can produce toxic compounds such as aflatoxins and vomitoxin, both prior to and during the harvest. Processing pulses, cleaned of dockage and foreign material prior to delivery, in a pulse-dedicated facility, virtually eliminates the risk of aflatoxins/vomotoxin.
Here is a picture of feed peas with and without dockage.
Fleury, M. Nutritional properties of peas. The Feed Pea Focus, Canada’s Feed Pea Newsletter, May 2008.
Nutrient dense - Pulses are high in dietary fiber and protein, and rich in micronutrients including iron, calcium, zinc, folate and other B vitamins, yet low in fat. This chart from The Gluten-Free Diet: a Comprehensive Resource Guide by Shelley Case, RD, compares the nutritional composition of various flours, including both wheat and gluten-free flours with pulse flours. It provides helpful information for food formulators looking to improve the nutritional profile of the foods they create.
Protein content - The protein content of peas will vary as a result of the variety, and the environmental conditions under which they were grown including the area the peas were grown in and the growing conditions. For example, in 2006 and 2007, the levels of protein in peas grown in western Canada varied from 17.8 -28.7% (dry weight basis).
Hood-Niefer, S, Warkentin, T, Chibbar, R, Vandenberg, A, & Tyler, R, Effect of genotype and environment on the concentrations of starch and protein in, and the physicochemical properties of starch from field pea and fababean. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 2012; 92(1):141-50.
Protein quality - In November 2010, Pulse Canada on behalf of the Canadian pulse industry, funded a study by Dr Jim House (University of Manitoba) to analyze the protein quality of pulses using protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) methodologies. PDCAAS is the method used in the U.S. and internationally, and PER is the method used in Canada.
a. United States (PDCASS)
Pulse Canada has published a fact sheet reviewing the protein quality of cooked pulses using the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) method.
Protein Quality of Cooked Pulses (PDCAAS Method). Pulse Canada fact sheet, 2011.
b. Canada (PER)
Health Canada has approved Pulse Canada’s submission to adopt new Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) data for pulses. PER values are provided in the table below (highlighted in red) and are used to generate the protein rating (right hand column). Protein ratings are calculated based on a 250mL serving, Health Canada’s RDI (reasonable daily intake) for pulses (protein rating = PER multiplied by amount of protein in 250 ml). Values from 20-39.9 qualify for a Source of Protein claim. Values of 40 or greater qualify for an Excellent Source of Protein Claim.
Food PER (old) PER (2012) Protein (g) in 250 mL Protein Rating Red Kidney Beans 1.1 1.55 14.8 22.9 Navy Beans 1.2 1.51 17.1 25.8 Whole Green Lentils 0.3 1.30 16.7 21.7 Split Yellow Peas - 1.42 15.9 22.5 Black Beans - 1.61 14.9 23.9 Chickpeas (Kabuli) 1.6 2.32 15.1 35.0 Pinto Beans 0.5 1.64 15.2 24.9
Sustainability - Pulses use only half the non-renewable energy inputs of other crops, as well as having a low carbon footprint. They also improve the sustainability of cropping systems (by "nitrogen fixing"). Pulse Canada has been at the forefront of developing systems that accurately measure the environmental impact of crops from field to plate.
Total Dietary Fibre (TDF) definitions and methods of testing
Canadian Dietary Fibre Policy - In February 2012, the Health Canada Bureau of Nutritional Science Food Directorate of the Health Products and Food Branch issued a report: Policy for Labelling and Advertising of Dietary Fibre-Containing Food Products.
The goal of this report is to bring Canada up to date with international standards regarding the definition of dietary fibre. The report includes a revised definition for dietary fibre, as well as a new caloric value for determining the energy value of a dietary fibre. Within the report, Health Canada, in consultation with the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA), proposed a list of appropriate analytical methods for dietary fibre. The AOAC 2009.01 method is seen as effective for measuring the total dietary fibre content of a food, regardless of the fibre chemical structure. This method eliminates issues of double accounting when certain potential fibre fractions such as resistant starch, polydextrose and inulin are partially and completely measured by a combination of general and specific methods.
Differences Between Traditional TDF and the newest TDF Methods - Medallion Labs has provided a helpful summary of the differences between the traditional TDF and newest TDF methods. Health Canada now requires the use of methods AOAC 2009.01 or AOAC 2011.25 for dietary fiber labeling purposes. Dietary Fiber (CODEX Definition) by Enzymatic-Gravimetric Method and Liquid Chromatography: Total (AOAC 2009.01) or Total plus Soluble and Insoluble (AOAC 2011.25)
Insoluble and soluble fiber definitions - Insoluble and soluble fibers are two forms of plant material included in definitions of dietary fiber. They are identified by their water solubility. Dieticians recommend a consumption ratio of 3:1, insoluble to soluble. Whole pulses are an excellent source of both insoluble and soluble fiber.
Functionality and applications:
Research summary on processing, functionality and applications - Pulse Canada (2007) published a report reviewing the literature relating to pulse processing, functionality and applications.
Flour Particle size - Pulse flours with a coarser particle size were found to be preferable when incorporating pulse flours into pita bread.
Borsuk, Y, Arntfield, SD, Lukow, O, Swallow, K, & Malcolmson, L, Incorporation of Pulse Flours of Different Particle Size in Relation to Pita Bread Quality. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 2012; 92(10):2055-61.
Milling method - The Canadian International Grains Institute (CIGI) is undertaking a four-year milling and utilization project focused on expanding knowledge about pulse flour composition and functionality, and how to optimize them for commercial end-use applications.
The project is examining the effect of four different milling methods (stone, hammer, pin and roller milling) on the compositional, physical, functional and end-use suitability of pulse flours. Early results which examined the effect of milling method on cookies found differences in the quality of cookies made with the different yellow pea flours. These differences included colour, cookie height and cookie spread.
Heather Maskus presented the webinar Advancing Pulse Flour Knowledge: CIGI Pulse Flour Milling project (October 18, 2012). Targeted at food industry professionals in food technology, research, product development, quality assurance and marketing, the webcast aimed to review new research on how different milling technology affects the functionality of pulses (peas, beans, lentils and chickpeas) in different food product applications such as pasta, noodles, baked goods, snacks, tortillas, extruded products and more.
Flavour issues - Research conducted by the Food Development Centre (FDC) in Manitoba evaluated the use of pea fractions in coatings for three meat applications: ready-to-cook (RTC) tempura-battered chicken nuggets; RTC breaded fish sticks; and fully cooked glazed chicken breasts. The research showed that pea starch, pea flour, and pea fiber can be utilized in meat coatings to replace traditional corn, wheat, and thickening (gum) ingredients and produce better-for-you prepared products that attained a fiber nutrient content claim. The researchers were able to use 'Best' Whole Yellow Pea Flour to replace 100% of the wheat flour with no resulting off flavours and, because of the nature of the flour, they were also able to replace some of the gums resulting in a cost saving. This contrasts with some commercial flours which were only able to replace 50% of the wheat flour because of off-flavours.
Sawyer, L. Pulse, Fractions: opportunities in Batters, Breadings and Glazes, 8th Canadian Pulse Research Workshop, Calgary, Alberta, November 2010.
Cookies - Pulse flours have been successfully incorporated into commercial cookie recipes.
Zucco, F, Borsuk, Y & Arntfield, S, Physical and nutritional evaluation of wheat cookies, supplemented with pulse flours of different particle sizes. Food Science and Technology, 2012; 44:2070-6.
Crackers - Gluten-free cracker snacks were developed using commercially available pulse flours and fractions.
Han, J, Janz, J, & Gerlat, M, Development of gluten-free cracker snacks using pulse flours and fractions. Food Research International, 2010; 43:627-33.
Extruded products - This poster summarizes work looking at the suitability of pulse flours in spaghetti and extruded snacks.
Frolich, P, Bellido, A-M, Boux, G, & Malcolmson, L, Suitability of Pulse Flours in Extruded Products. AACC International Meeting, Palm Springs, California, 2011.
Batters and Breadings - A research project conducted by the Food Development Centre (FDC) in Manitoba evaluated the use of pea fractions in coatings for three meat applications: ready-to-cook (RTC) tempura-battered chicken nuggets; RTC breaded fish sticks; and fully cooked glazed chicken breasts. The research findings established that pea starch, pea flour, and pea fiber can be utilized in meat coatings to replace traditional corn, wheat, and thickening (gum) ingredients and produce better-for-you prepared products that can attain a fiber nutrient content claim. (see also 4. Flavour Issues)
Using Pulses in Batter and Breading Applications, Pulse Canada fact sheet, 2011.
The FDC team also evaluated pea fractions in coatings for mozzarella sticks.
Caspar, L, Kehler, L, Meseyton, J, Utioh, A,& Wan, M, Potential for yellow pea ingredient utilization in breaded mozzarella stick coatings as determined by functional, sensory and nutritional properties. Poster presentation at CIFST, Niagara Falls, Canada 2012.
Noodles - Lindsay Bourré examined the suitability of pulse flours in dried Asian white salted noodles, looking at their effect on nutritional quality and noodle characteristics.
Lindsay Bourré examined the suitability of pulse flours in dried Asian white salted noodles, looking at their effect on nutritional quality and noodle characteristics.
Beverages, Salad Dressings and Yoghurts - Joyce Boye (Agriculture and Agri-food Canada, Food Research and Development Centre, St Hyacinth, Quebec) and Benjamin Simpson (Department of Food Science, McGill University) investigated the inclusion of pulse fractions in fruit juices, yoghurt and probiotic cultures, and salad dressings.
Maskus, H, Supplementation of Beverages, Salad Dressing and Yogurt with Pulse Ingredients, Summary of Report. Pulse Canada, 2008.
Low-fat bologna - Chickpea flour is a potential source of high protein flour for use as an extender in emulsified meat product due to its superior technological functionality and minimal effects on flavour.
Sanjeewa, W, Wanasundara, J, Pietraski, Z, & Shand, P. Characterization of chickpea (Cier arietinum L.) flours and application in low-fat pork bologna as a model system. Food Research International, 2010; 43:617-626.
Gluten-free Applications - Pulse Canada in collaboration with Shelley Case, RD, dietician and author and Carol Fenster, PhD, consultant and author of several gluten-free cookbooks, developed a recipe book Pulses and the Gluten-Free Diet: Cooking with Beans, Peas, Lentils and Chickpeas. It offers 26 gluten-free recipes using pea, bean, lentil and chickpea ingredients, including whole yellow pea flour and chickpea flour.
For specific formulation/application information or other assistance, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org
- Cookies - Pulse flours have been successfully incorporated into commercial cookie recipes.
Palatability - Peas are naturally palatable for dogs. Dogs were found to prefer a diet containing ground peas at 15%.
Behnke, K, Recent Discoveries For Processed Peas Use in Dog Foods. September 28, 2004. Presentation at the 25th Western Nutrition Conference, Saskatoon, Canada.
Inclusion levels - This study determined that dogs would accept up to 50% peas in pet food.
Alberta Crop Industry Development Fund. Analysis of the Potential of Utilizing Field Pea and Faba Bean For Export and Domestic Pet Food Markets. Centre for Agri-industrial Technology, 2004.
Use of specific pea fractions in extruded pet food - A paper summarizing extrusion trials in pet food where pea protein, pea starch and pea fiber were included in extruded pet food at levels up to 15%.
Bond, J, Extrusion Characteristics, Palatability, and Health Implications of Pea Fractions in Dog Food. Pulse Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, 2010.
Low glycemic index, obesity - Jennifer Adolphe has shown potential health benefits for obese dogs that are fed a low-glycemic diet based on peas.
Adolphe, J, Drews, D, Huang, Q, Silver, T, & Weber, L, Postprandial impairment of flow-mediated dilation and elevated methylglyoxal after simple but not complex carbohydrate consumption in dogs. Nutrition Research, 2012; 32(4):278-84.
Hypoallergenicity - A helpful summary on issues of allergenicity in formulating pet food.
Taylor, J. Sensitive systems and finicky pets, Hypoallergenic foods and ingredients for pets with allergies. Petfood Industry Magazine, pp30-33, May 2009.
Probiotic reference - 'In dietary legume studies involving rats, the dietary fiber and resistant starch in whole peas stimulated the highest bifidobacteria cecal count.'
Queiroz-Monici, K, Costa, G, da Silva, N, Reis, S, & Oliveira, A, Bifidogenic effect of dietary fiber and resistant starch from leguminous on the intestinal microbiota of rats. Nutrition, 2005; 21:602-608 cited in Fleury, M. The many benefits of pea fiber. The Feed Pea Focus, Canada’s Feed Pea Newsletter, May 2008.
Aldrich, G, Peas in Petfood. Petfood Industry Magazine, pp82-83, March 2010.
Aldrich, G, Pulses: New Ingredients for Pet Foods? Petfood Industry Magazine, pp48-9, February 2010.
Fahey, G, Flickinger, C, Grieshop, C, & Swanson, K, (2004). The role of dietary fiber in companion animal nutrition. In van der Kamp, J, Asp, N, Miller-Jones, J, & Schaafsma, G, (Eds.), Dietary Fibre: Bioactive Carbohydrates for Food and Feed, (pp295-328), Wageningen Academic Publishers, The Netherlands.
- Palatability - Peas are naturally palatable for dogs. Dogs were found to prefer a diet containing ground peas at 15%.
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